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Hi Graham,

thank you for the fast answer and the tipps on what to think about!

I am actually really exited about this topic. Like working on theories how life could look like...I could spend hours just thinking about this!

Do you have any book/documentary/research paper recommendations that could help me with my research about this?

Thanks again,


Oh, there's so many. For a start, the recent Netflix show Alien Worlds has a lot of fun stuff for thinking about what alien life might be like. Peter Ward's book "Life as We Do Not Know It" is a fun romp in that world, and I have other recommendations that I'm working on via Amazon here: https://www.amazon.com/shop/cosmobiologist

How will the presence of thousands of satellite constellations like starlink have for the future of astronomy, and what can be done to prevent the science of astronomy?

Your question is one that many of us are struggling with right now, Sam. Starlink and other satellite constellations have the potential to unlock the global internet so that every living human can be online at any time. It will change the nature of the internet and the nature of humanity in the very near future. It will democratize the virtual realm as well as the political. It will also make people like Elon Musk poised to become the first trillionaires and to have an as-of-yet unknown level of power on the world. But it also is taking away from our ancestral heritage of viewing the heavens unobscured. Just the other night, we watched a Starlink train overhead. They were are very bright and rather fun to watch, but when we get to the point of not just tens of thousands of Starlink satellites, but also hundreds of thousands of others as many other competitors will likely try their hand in the game soon, it makes many of us wonder about the future of ground based astronomy. Of course, we can calibrate our telescopes and our data to account for the constellations for astronomy, even if it will greatly hinder astrophotography and stargazing, but it will still be a problem. Elon Musk and others have argued that we should just invest more in space telescopes, but that misses the point a great deal. Also, we have the issue of the Kessler Syndrome, which until now has been mostly hypothetical, but with so many satellites in orbit becomes a very real threat. For instance, four nations so far have used anti-satellite missile technologies. The U.S., Russia, India, and China have all shown that they can destroy a satellite, but that leaves a large number of fragments in orbit for some time. Once we have a large satellite constellation, it might be that a single anti-satellite missile will be all it will take to hinder travel and transport into space for a period of years or more. It really is an uncertainty on a colossal scale in every direction. There is great value in satellite constellations as well as great risk, and everything in between.

What effect will thousands of satellite constellations like starlink have on Astronomy, and what can be done to control light pollution?

Hello everyone, I'm a biologist who is interested in the astrobiology and microbiology. I want to study master degree in microbiology and emphasize the thesis project in astrobiology. However I have never worked in something related with that, I lack of experience in that fields. On the other hand, a preview of the project is a requisite to apply for scholarships and study the postgraduate course in any university in the world.Recently I finished the latest book of microbiology of brock, also i have read books of astroiology, and papers, with them i got many ideas to research. However most of them require special devices which are able to simulate extraterrestrial enviroments such as venus, mars, etc. I'm living in Australia and apparently none of the universities in the country has this kind of machine. In addition to this, the development of one of this devices are too expensive and needs specialized personal to be constructed. So I had to read more about anothers possibilities and I got more ideas. But searching for papers, I noticed that always someone has already do the same (sometimes with differents kind of methods that I tought ). Am I being too exigent with me trying to do something unique, new and original? what can I do? it doesnt matter how much I try getting new ideas of research, always looks that someone already do the same. I'm stuck and out of ideas and time.
Thank you for read, I'll appreciate any advice.
Kind regards

Recent DOD Contradictions:


UFOs are daily documented by military, told its radar junk, daily.


Break laws of physics, but no proof of aliens? Yet admits can't rule out aliens.


Any thoughts on the data & the new contradictions?


Avoiding decades of whistleblowers like Dr. J. Allen Hynek, skeptic, astronomer, physicist, lead scientist for Air Force project Blue Book.

My uncle who is 80 worked in Northrup his adult life, does not deny.


Another multi-generational person, an engineer since before NASA was a thing, whom I've known since a child, & my father for decades too. He also towed the line, refused to answer, but in his case leaned back, winked at me & smiled.


I have doubts that astrologists have spent much time studying the subject of UFOs, bad for their career.


Easy to doubt something that you've never taken seriously.


Demonizing subjects.


Whether UFO's are real or not they satisfy a deep psychological need. We need mystery. It is generally felt that science has stripped mystery from the human condition because scientists, at least some scientists, claim that science has all the answers or at least can find them. Honest scientists realize that this could not be further from the truth but the notion still exists in the minds of those without scientific training. UFO's provide a mystery that scientists find difficult at the very least. If we deny their existence we are participating in a conspiratorial cover up. If we accept the notion we are considered gullible and foolish, at least by our peers. It is a truly crummy situation with no real way to win. As a result, most scientists simply ignore the question leaving the issue to the layman and sensationalists. I for one have studied the question professionally as part of my job. I have never seen evidence that convinced me that intelligent extraterrestrial alien activity was responsible for any of the strange things I have seen. (And I have seen many very strange things) However, it must be remembered that absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. The Universe is a very big place and if we are alone it seems like a terrible waste of space. (apologies to Carl Sagan and "Contact") I for one will keep looking and hope that one day I will find that evidence that I have sought for over 50 years. I hope they are real, I really do, for the Universe will be a far less interesting place without them.

Do you mean astronomers?

  • What is the classification of EXOPLANET based on habitable?

please inform me little fast I realy need to know for my project  my email id is satyam.agrahari48@gmail.com

 I am a Geology undergraduate student at the University of Delhi, with minors in math and microbiology. Astrobiology and related areas such as Geobiology pique my attention. Could you kindly recommend any reputable graduate schools in other countries with relation to NASA or ESA where research focuses on topics such as the origins of life and the search for life elsewhere in the universe?



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